Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Sustainable Development Goals People †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Sustainable Development Goals People. Answer: Introduction Australia is one of the highest per-capita greenhouse gases producing country in the globe and it has ethical responsibility to diminish the generation levels of CO2. The country suffers from horrible climatic changes causing damage to the environment. This degradation has affected the Great Barrier Reef, which is the home of a huge variety of endangered flora and faunas. All these causes have resulted in the conservation of energy resources by both the Government and non-Government agencies (Griggs 2013). On the other hand, Malaysia with its changes in demography and increase in population and industrial growth is suffering from the change of climatic conditions owing to its depletion of fossil fuel (Rogers, Jalal and Boyd 2012). Malaysia although rich in fossil fuel, they are fast depleting causing an alarming effects on its inhabitants. The Malaysian government is creating frantic efforts to promote and develop the alternate sources of energy. On the context of sustainability of water, it is evident from various reports that Australia belongs to one of the driest nations of the world and suffers from tremendous scarcity of water. This is the reason why Australian government has focused on the conservation of water in the nation. On the other side, Malaysians continues to waste water despite the repeated incidents of water shortages in the country. Malaysian government along with few private sectors and NGOs has come up with suitable approaches to preserve these non-renewable sources of energy. The word sustainability according to the United Nations (the UNs Brundtland Commission coined the word in 1987),is defined as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. From the definition, it can be described as the discovery of clean renewable sources of energy that can be regenerated instead of depletion (Dincer and Rosen 2012. The following report emphasizes on the significance of using alternate energy sources and its impact on sustainable development. The report closes with a detailed comparison of utilization of energy resources- renewable and non-renewable of both the nations. The report highlights different approaches taken by the two countries towards sustainable development. Energy Sustainability in Australia Australias renewable energy resource is mainly concerned with attempts to enumerate and developrenewable energy, which consists of electrical energy, transportation fuels and thermal power (Pearce, Barbier and Markandya 2013). In the year 2015, the overall renewable energy utilization in Australia was 346PJ that stands for 5.9% of the total energy consumption of Australia. In the 21st century, renewable energyhas experienced considerable development. During the end of the year December 2015, it was predictable that Australia generated 35,007 gigawatt hours (GWh) of renewable electricity (or equivalent), contributing to 14.6% of the total power generation in Australia (Sachs 2015). The report of 2016 Clean Energy Australia shows a complete yearly picture of the energy sector and the latest key figures of Australia and information on the nationwide energy business (Blewitt 2014). The chief alternative energy sources that comprises to the countrys development are Within the year, 1949 to 1974, the Snowy Mountains Scheme that was erected has a power generating capacity of 3,800MW containing 16 chief dams and 7 major power stations. The plan produces 4,500 GWh electricity on a regular basis per year. Thirty power stations and fifty dams, which has an entire producing capacity of 2,600MW is activated by Hydro Tasmania plant. This company generates 9,000gwh o hydro-electricity every year on an average.In the year 200708, hydro-electricity contributed to 43% of Australias renewable energy generation. However, in the year 2014-15, this generation had gone down to somewhat 39% of renewable energy generation (Bahadori and Nwaoha 2013). In Australia till the month of July 2017, 15 wind energy projects with a collective production power capacity of around 2,112 MW either are under construction, constructed or will initiate construction if it receives economic closure by this year.During the year 2010 in October, Australia's renewable electrical energy of about 22.9%, and 2% of the total electrical energy consumption of the country, was supplied from wind power, which was enough to run more than 700,000 residences. This generation of electricity was supplied by 52 wind farms having 1052 turbines that generated roughly 5000gwh electricity annually. As of October 2010, the completely fixed capacity of the project was 1,880MW (including only projects over 100kW) that has an additional 1,043MW of project under construction. In South Australia, wind poweris becoming a fast-growing business as the nation has apt provisions for constructing wind farms. Accordingly, South Australia produces extra wind power generation than ot her Australian districts or province. During the month of October 2010, South Australia provided an approximate amount of 20% power requirements for its district from 435 that had a capability of 907MW, which is noticeably ahead of Victorias 267turbines generating 428MW, and Western Australias 142turbines producing 202MW. In South Australia by the close of the year 2011, wind power had increased 26% electricity production of the district, for the first time blowing out coal-fired electricity. South Australia with just 7.2% of Australias inhabitants has 54% of the wind power facility of the country.Adesalination plant worth $A2.2 billion in Adelaide supply 50% water requirements of the town and it is fully generated by renewable energy. In the year 2009 the Waubra Wind farm manifested at 192MW close to Ballart, was finished. It contained 128turbines extended over 173km2 and was the largest wind farm in the Southern hemisphere. On the contrary,Lake Bonney Wind Farmwith only 99 turbine s next toMillicent in South Australiawas the biggest with its capacity of 239.5MW. However, the Macarthur Wind farm in 2013 at Macarthur, Victoria broke all these records with its capacity of 420 MW. Solar Photovoltaics Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology produces power from rays of the sun and this is utilized in grid-connected and off-grid applications. In the year 2000, German ecologists and Eurosolar prospered the idea of implementing solar photovoltaics for 100,000 roofs plan. This is when solar photovoltaics as a renewable source of energy became prominent in the world. According to a report in 2016, the best solar market is the commercial sector that ranges from 75-100kW. This market helpedthe solar market to develop to an average size of 5.56kW by the end of the year. Australia being one of the sunniest nations of the world has huge favorable factors for the solar market to develop. Geothermal energy in Australia although a natural resource, not used as a type of energy. Still, the country has some recognized and prospective sites at the core of the nation where geothermal action is obvious. In order to check the presence of high temperature, geothermal wells have been drilled at suitable spots that proved the presence of such high temperature. Consequently, projects are expected to come up in the approaching years and investigation is expected at probable sites. South Australia, which is depicted as Australias hot rock haven for its variety of renewable energy, could offer an expected amount of 6.8% of Australia's bottom cargo control requirements by 2030. Biomass and Bio fuels Biomass in Australiais directly utilized for power generation such as by smoldering sugar cane waste (bagasse) for thermal power production in sugar factories. This is also utilized to manufacture vapor for industrialized utilizations like preparation of food and for heating. Biomass is also transformed into a fluid or gaseous biofuel. In 2015, Australias 26.1% (90.2PJ) of renewable energy utilization was contributed by Bagasse, while wood and wood waste supplied an additional 26.9% (92.9PJ). Biofuels generated from food crops have turn out to be contentious as food charges amplified considerably in the middle of 2008, contributing to an increase alarmed concerningfood vs. fuel. In AustraliaEthanol fuel is manufactured fromcaneor grains and at present there are three business fuel manufacturers of ethanol in Australia, all of which are on the east coast. A 10% restriction on the absorption of mixtures of fuel ethanol has been enforced by the administration. In the year of 2007 March, a joint venture with theQueensland Government and the Cane growers organization was initiated to encourage the use of renewable fuels business. This led to the selling of over 100million litres of the latest BP Unleaded with reusable ethanol to Queensland motorists. Energy Sustainability in Malaysia In Malaysia, the energy policies are determined by the Malaysian government who deals with matters of energy generation, supply, and utilization (Foo 2013). The energy sector which comprises of the companies and services that supplies energy is controlled by The Department of Electricity and Gas Supply. The other divisions of energy sectors include institutions of research and development and consumers. Other than this, the chief energy operators in Malaysia are the Government-linked organizationsPetronasandTenaga Nasional Berhad. The energy policies of Malaysia are aided by Governmental bureaus like Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water,Energy Commission (Suruhanjaya Tenaga), and the Malaysia Energy Centre (Pusat Tenaga Malaysia). The government of Malaysia is trying to make biomass as the fifth-fuel resource under the Fuel Diversification Policy of the country in order to improve the sources of renewable energy resources. In the year 2001, a policy was set out with an objective of contribution of renewable energy sources for 5% of power production, which became 500 to 600megawatt(MW) by the end of 2005.Currently in the year 2016; a widespread attempt of onshore wind-mapping projects have been initiated by the Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) of Malaysia. In Malaysia SEDA is a constitutional organization under the Sustainable Energy Development Authority Act of 2011. SEDA governs and controls the execution of the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) system that includes a Renewable Energy fund authorized under the Renewable Energy Act of 2011.To maintain the FiT scheme The Renewable Energy fund was formed. At present whether wind power should be incorporated in the FiT regime is determined by the onshore wind m apping systems. (Ahmad and Tahar 2014). Usually, in Malaysia energy generation has revolved around oil and natural gas. Presently Malaysia has production potentiality of 13GW power. As of July 2017, according to Suruhanjaya Tenaga theMalaysian National Gridhas a capacity of producing 19,023 MW power, with a requirement of maximum 13,340 MW. In the year 2007, the country consumed oil of 514 thousand barrels (23.6 million tonnes) daily alongside a consumption of 755 thousand barrels (34.2 million tonnes) each day. Nonetheless, there are merely 33 years of natural gas reserves, and 19 years of oil reserves in Malaysia even when the energy requirement is rising. The Malaysian government as a result of this is increasing the use of renewable energy resources. At present Malaysia produces 16%hydroelectricity, and 84% thermal power production (Lim and Lee 2012).At present the industry of oil and gas in Malaysia is subjugated by state possessedPetronas,and Suruhanjaya Tenaga, a legaislative board administering the peninsular and S abah energy has completely synchronized the energy segment under the Electricity Commission Act of 2001 (Saadatian 2012). Water Sustainability in Australia On Earth, water is fundamental for all existence. Water is a critical reserve underneath the market, culture and environment of Australia. In Australia, several aspects manipulate the safety of water. These aspects are stimulated by expansion of population, environmental deprivation, change and inconsistency of rainfall and climate, use of land, pollution, organizational planning and Australias demands for exports, especially of natural resources and food. Sustainable management of water will necessitate the technical modernization with improved effectiveness on output and enhancement of environmental effects to maintain a balance among trade and industry, ecological and societal concerns. Australias constitution of the Commonwealthassures that policy of natural resource with water is a liability of theStates: "The Commonwealth shall not, by any law or regulation of trade or commerce, abridge the right of a State or of the residents therein to the reasonable use of the waters of rivers for conservation or irrigation" (Section 100). In the early 21st century, the government of Commonwealth has acquired a larger responsibility in the water sector of Australia. The water policies at the federal level are directed by theMinistry for Climate Change and Water. In the year 1994, in order to reform the water industry anationalized water scheme undertaken by the government of Australia approved the Water Reform Agenda. In the year 2004, the National Water Commission replaced this and the National Water Initiative (NWI) was implemented. The NWI "aims at increasing the productivity and efficiency of Australias water use and establishing clear pathways to return all water systems rivers and groundwater to environmentally sustainable levels of extraction". Drinking Water Guidelines as part of a National Water Quality Management Strategy was also formed by the administration. State initiatives taken by the local governments comprise Commissions of Water, Protection Agencies of environment and Competition Authorities. Natural Resources and Water Departments and Trade Departments control these sectors. For example, under the Water Act 2000 in Queensland, policy of water is the liability of theWater Commission of Queensland, which is controlled by the Natural Resources Department, Mines and Energy and the Ministry of Trade. Other water management project includes wastewater reuse and rainwater harvesting. Water Sustainability in Malaysia Water supply in Malaysia is characterized by several achievements and some challenges. Malaysian government has approved a nationalized vision for water to guarantee uninterrupted water supply in terms of capacity and superiority to bring together all requirements, along with the environment. In the sustainable nationalized development plan this vision is one of the chief programs. The policy is a guide to recognize the vision are devised, accepted and distributed for all stakeholders, so that one and all preserve the water resources and their ecosystems. The central government implements the national policy of water, while the policy is approved by the state governments (Zailani 2012). Incorporated land and water resources management founded on the basins of river and the fortification of watersheds and aquifers is covered by the policy. Interstate transfers of water, water distribution to users, supervising of dams and its protection, and progression of activities in watersheds, as well as the dam reservoirs vicinity are channelized by this policy. The state governments accept and assist the contemporary rules that are executed for the national policy of water. Australia is ranked 20th in the world on progress towards the sustainable development program whereas Malaysia is ranked 63rd. Australia although has some highest rate of carbon emissions it has developed its alternate sources of energy consumption. On the other hand, Malaysia, which is a developing nation, still succumbs from some serious sustainable development programs. Australia as a result of this is much ahead of Malaysia in the sustainable development program. While Australia has alternatives energy resources like hydro electricity and bio fuels, Malaysia still depends on limited alternatives like water and gas supplies. Conclusion Therefore, the above report ends by drawing a line of comparison between Australia and Malaysias sustainable development programs. The alternate uses of energies in both the countries are efficient to support the countries growing demand for power generation. Australia being technologically ahead of Malaysia manages the sustainable development more effectively than Malaysia. Besides, the Australian government as well as the citizens of the nation is working together to develop a sustainable resource program for the country. However, both the countries must develop more sustainable use of energy resources to protect the non-renewable resources of the country. References Ahmad, S. and Tahar, R.M., 2014. Selection of renewable energy sources for sustainable development of electricity generation system using analytic hierarchy process: A case of Malaysia.Renewable energy,63, pp.458-466. Bahadori, A. and Nwaoha, C., 2013. A review on solar energy utilisation in Australia.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,18, pp.1-5. Blewitt, J., 2014.Understanding sustainable development. Routledge. Dincer, I. and Rosen, M.A., 2012.Exergy: energy, environment and sustainable development. Newnes. Foo, K.Y., 2013. A vision on the role of environmental higher education contributing to the sustainable development in Malaysia.Journal of Cleaner Production,61, pp.6-12. Griggs, D., Stafford-Smith, M., Gaffney, O., Rockstrm, J., hman, M.C., Shyamsundar, P., Steffen, W., Glaser, G., Kanie, N. and Noble, I., 2013. Policy: Sustainable development goals for people and planet.Nature,495(7441), pp.305-307. Lim, S. and Lee, K.T., 2012. Implementation of biofuels in Malaysian transportation sector towards sustainable development: A case study of international cooperation between Malaysia and Japan.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,16(4), pp.1790-1800. Pearce, D., Barbier, E. and Markandya, A., 2013.Sustainable development: economics and environment in the Third World. Routledge. Rogers, P.P., Jalal, K.F. and Boyd, J.A., 2012.An introduction to sustainable development. Earthscan. Saadatian, O., Haw, L.C., Mat, S.B. and Sopian, K., 2012. Perspective of sustainable development in Malaysia.International Journal of Energy and Environment,2(6), pp.260-267. Sachs, J.D., 2015.The age of sustainable development. Columbia University Press. Zailani, S., Jeyaraman, K., Vengadasan, G. and Premkumar, R., 2012. Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) in Malaysia: A survey.International Journal of Production Economics,140(1), pp.330-340.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.