Saturday, December 28, 2019
The United States foreign policy changed in some very noticeable ways after the terrorist attacks on American soil on September 11, 2001. This included increasing the amount of intervention in foreign wars, the amount of defense spending, and the redefinition of terrorism as a new enemy. Yet, in other ways, foreign policy after 9/11 is a continuation of American policy since its beginnings. When George W. Bush assumed the presidency in January 2001, his major foreign policy initiative was the creation of a missile shield over parts of Europe. In theory, the shield would give added protection if North Korea or Iran launched a missile strike. In fact, Condoleezza Rice, then the head of Bushs National Security Council, was slated to give a policy speech about the missile shield on September 11, 2001. Focus on Terror Nine days later, on September 20, 2001, in a speech before a joint session of Congress, Bush changed the direction of American foreign policy. He made terrorism its focus. We will direct every resource at our command Ã¢â¬â every means of diplomacy, every tool of intelligence, every instrument of law enforcement, every financial influence, and every necessary weapon of war Ã¢â¬â to the destruction and to the defeat of the global terror network. The speech is perhaps best remembered for this remark. [W]e will pursue nations that provide aid or safe haven to terrorism, said Bush. Every nation in every region now has a decision to make: Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists. Preventive Warfare, Not Preemptive The most noticeable immediate change in the U.S. foreign policy was its focus on preventive action, not just preemptive action. This is also known as the Bush Doctrine. Nations often use preemptive strikes in warfare when they know that enemy action is imminent. During Trumans administration, for example, North Koreas attack on South Korea in 1950 stunned then-Secretary of State Dean Acheson and others at the state department. They urged Truman to retaliate, leading the U.S. into the Korean War and creating a major expansion of U.S. global policy. When the U.S. invaded Iraq in March 2003, however, it broadened its policy to include preventive warfare. The Bush Administration told the public (erroneously) that Saddam Husseins regime had nuclear material and would soon be able to produce atomic weapons. Bush vaguely tied Hussein to Al Qaeda (again erroneously), and he said the invasion was, in part, to prevent Iraq from supplying terrorists with nuclear weapons. Thus, the Iraqi invasion was to prevent some perceived Ã¢â¬â but not clearly evident Ã¢â¬â event. Humanitarian Assistance Since 9/11, U.S. humanitarian assistance has become more subject to foreign policy demands and in some cases, it has become militarized. Independent Non-Government Organization (NGOs) working through USAID (a branch of the U.S. State Department) have typically delivered worldwide humanitarian aid independently of American foreign policy. However, as Elizabeth Ferris reported in a Brookings Institution article, U.S. military commands have begun their own humanitarian assistance programs in areas where they are conducting military operations. Therefore, army commanders can leverage humanitarian assistance to gain military advantages. NGOs have also increasingly fallen under closer federal scrutiny to ensure that they comply with U.S. anti-terrorism policies. This requirement, says Ferris, made it difficult, indeed impossible, for U.S. humanitarian NGOs to claim that they were independent of their governments policy. That, in turn, makes it more difficult for humanitarian missions to reach sensitive and dangerous locations. Questionable Allies Some things, however, have not changed. Even after 9/11, the U.S. continues its tendency to forge questionable alliances. The U.S. had to secure Pakistans support before invading neighboring Afghanistan to fight the Taliban, which intelligence said was an Al Qaeda supporter. The resulting alliance with Pakistan and its president, Pervez Musharraf, was awkward. Musharrafs ties with the Taliban and Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden were questionable, and his commitment to the War on Terror seemed halfhearted. Indeed, in early 2011, intelligence revealed that bin Laden was hiding in a compound in Pakistan, and apparently had been for more than five years. American special operations troops killed bin Laden in May, but his mere presence in Pakistan cast more doubt on that countrys commitment to the war. Some members of Congress soon began calling for an end to Pakistani foreign aid. Those situations are reminiscent of American alliances during the Cold War. The United States supported such unpopular leaders as the Shah of Iran and Ngo Dinh Diem in South Vietnam simply because they were anti-Communist. War Weariness George W. Bush warned Americans in 2001 that the War on Terror would be long and its results might be hard to recognize. Regardless, Bush failed to remember the lessons of the Vietnam War and to understand that Americans are results-driven. Americans were encouraged to see the Taliban virtually driven from power by 2002, and could understand a brief period of occupation and state-building in Afghanistan. But when the invasion of Iraq pulled resources away from Afghanistan, allowing the Taliban to become resurgent, and the Iraqi War itself became one of seemingly unending occupation, Americans became war-weary. When voters briefly gave control of Congress to Democrats in 2006, they were in fact rejecting Bushs foreign policy. That public war-weariness infected the Obama administration as the president wrestled with withdrawing troops from Iraq and Afghanistan as well as allocating funds for other military ventures, such as Americas limited involvement in the Libyan civil war. The Iraq war was concluded on December 18, 2011, when Obama withdrew the last of the American troops. After the Bush Administration The echoes of 9/11 continue into subsequent administrations, as each president grapples with finding a balance between foreign invention and domestic issues. During the Clinton administration, for example, the United States started spending more money on defense than virtually all other nations combined. Defense spending has continued to rise. Conflicts in the Syrian Civil War have led to U.S. intervention several times since 2014. Some have argued that the lasting change has been the instinct for American presidents to act unilaterally, as when the Trump Administration conducted unilateral airstrikes against Syrian forces in 2017 in response to chemical attacks at Khan Shaykhun. But historian Melvyn Leffler points out that that has been part of U.S. diplomacy since George Washington, and certainly throughout the Cold War. It is perhaps ironic that despite the unity in the country that arose immediately after 9/11, bitterness about the failure of the costly initiatives started by the Bush and later administrations has poisoned public discourse and helped to create a sharply polarized country. Perhaps the greatest change since the Bush Administration has been the expansion of the boundaries for a war on terror to include everything from trucks to malicious computer code. Domestic and foreign terrorism, it seems, is everywhere. Sources Devuyst, Youri. Religion and American foreign policy: the Bush-Obama divide and its impact on Transatlantic relations. Rivista di Studi Politici Internazionali, Nuova Serie, Vol. 77, No. 1Ã (305), GENNAIO-MARZO 2010, JSTOR. Entman, Robert M. Cascading Activation: Contesting the White Houses Frame after 9/11. Political Communication, Volume 20, 2003 - Issue 4, June 24, 2010. eMediaMillWorks. Text: President Bush Addresses the Nation. The Washington Post, September 20, 2001. Ferris, Elizabeth. 9/11 and Humanitarian Assistance: A Disturbing Legacy. The Brookings Institution, September 1, 2011. Kennedy, Liam. Enduring Freedom: Public Diplomacy and U.S. Foreign Policy. American Quarterly, Scott Lucas, Vol. 57, No. 2, JSTOR, June 2005. Leffler, Melvyn P. 9/11 in Retrospect: George W. Bushs Grand Strategy, Reconsidered. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 90, No. 5, JSTOR, September/October 2011. Scott, Catherine V. Imagining Terror in an Era of Globalization: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Construction of Terrorism after 9/11. Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 7, No. 3, American Political Science Association, JSTOR, September 2009. Selod, Saher. Citizenship Denied: The Racialization of Muslim American Men and Women Post-9/11. Critical Sociology, April 1, 2014. Thomson, StÃ ©phanie. 15 years after 9/11, this is how the US has changed. World Economic Forum, September 9, 2016.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Growing up in Different Eras of time and disparities between the quality of education affect peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ perception of heritage. Everyday Use by Alice Walker was an inspiring story of family and heritage. Simplicity against complexity. The old ways and the new ways. It was about people fighting for change and other people who were content with the way things were. The story takes place in the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s or 70Ã¢â¬â¢s and is written in the first person from the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. She has two daughters Dee and Maggie who are complete opposites. Maggie is a shy, not so smart black woman who is scarred from a fireÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Dee is an attractive, outgoing, educated, strong minded black woman who is tired of being oppressed by white society and discovers her African roots, knowledge of self and takes great pride in it. It seems that she looks down on or pities her mother and sister because they are simple country folk who are uneducated and seem content with the way their lives are. The different perceptions of heritage between Mama and Dee are due to the different eras of time t hey grew up in and the disparities of the quality of education between them. Mama or Mrs. Johnson grew up in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s and was forced to stop going to school when she was in the second grade because the school was closed down. Alice Walker notes that Mama says, Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t ask me why: in 1927 colored asked fewer questions than they do now.Ã¢â¬ (walker 158) This reveals that Mama only had a second grade education and that in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s most black people did not question the authority of white society. Mama barely knew how to read and lacked in the knowledge of the history of her people pertaining to the Atlantic Slave Trade, the countries in Africa her ancestors came from and the cultures and customs of these African countries. To Mama this historyShow MoreRelatedAn Analysis Of Alice Walker s Everyday Use989 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEnglish 102 22 January 2015 Heritage: The Various Interpretations in Alice WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ According to The Merriam-Webster Dictionary (2015), heritage is defined as, Ã¢â¬Å"traditions, achievements, beliefs, etc., that are part of the history of a group or nationÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"HeritageÃ¢â¬ ). Heritage takes on mixed meanings for different people as a consequence of life experiences and belief systems. Alice WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ utilizes characters with varying ideas of Ã¢â¬Å"heritageÃ¢â¬ to enlighten the world ofRead MoreCharacter Uses In Alice Walkers Everyday Use1095 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The short story Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ by Alice Walker begins with the narrator, Mama, and her daughter, Maggie, sitting in the yard that they both prepared and cleaned the day before. They were waiting for Dee, the oldest daughter, that is returning from college in Augusta after seven years of education. Maggie is going to be nervous for as long as Dee stays because of the scars and burns marks she got from the fire in their previous house. Maggie thinks that Dee has a much easier life than herRead MoreConflict of Characters in Alice Walkers Everyday Use722 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages In Alice Walkers Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ she creates a conflict between characters. Walker describes a family as they anxiously await the arrival of, Dee, the older sister of the family. When Dee (Wangero) comes home to visit Mrs. Johnson and Maggie, right away the readers see the differences in the family by how they talk, act, and dress. Dee has changed her name to an African name and is collecting the objects and materials of her past. Dee thinks that since she is in college she knows mores then theRead More Point of View in Alice Walkers Everyday Use Essay examples1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPoint of View in Alice Walkers Everyday Use Alice Walker is making a statement about the popularization of black culture in Everyday Use. The story involves characters from both sides of the African American cultural spectrum, conveniently cast as sisters in the story. Dee/Wangero represents the new black, with her natural hairdo and brightly colored clothing. Maggie remains traditional: the unchanged, unaffected bystander. Nowhere in the dialogue do Walkers characters directlyRead MoreThe Importance Of Family Heritage By Alice Walker1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSydney Elliott ENGL 102-52 Dr. Irmer February 25, 2015 The Importance of Family Heritage One of the most inspiring authors in American history is Alice Walker. Walker is the youngest child in a sharecropper family that found her overly ambitious and highly competitive (Walker 609). This gave her a strong fighting attitude, which allowed her to make positive changes in an extremely racist society. Unfortunately, when she was young, Walker was accidentally shot in her right eye with a BB gun whileRead MoreAn Analysis of Alice Walkers quot;everyday Usequot; Essay929 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesp An Analysis of Alice Walkers Everyday Usep Alice Walkers novel, The Color Purple, won the Pulitzer Prize in 1982. This novel, in addition to her short story collections and other novels, continue to touch the emotions of a vast audience. This ability, according to critics, has solidified her reputation as one of the major figures in contemporary literature (Gwynn 462). Born to sharecroppers in Eatonton, Georgia, in 1944, Alice Walkers life was not always easy. Her parents strived toRead MoreSymbolic References in Everyday Use by Alice Walker1848 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSymbolism is the taking of an object big or small, and giving it something to stand for. It could be your everyday math symbols for addition, subtraction, division, and etc. Although math symbols are perfect examples of symbolism, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s also objects that can be more than what they are. For example animals, Lions are known to be symbolized as strength, aggression, and assertiveness. Birds like doves are symbolized as love and peace. Colors are also held symbolically, for instance the color blackRead MoreThe Theme of Heritage in Everyday Use Essay559 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Readers of Alice Walkers, Everyday Use, discusses how the narrator realizes that Maggie understands her own heritage. What does the narrator mean when she says, Just like when Im in church and the spirit of God touches me and I get happy and shout? Does the narrator do something amazing that she has not done before? Some readers opine that the narrator knows what it really feels like to have family. Others say that the narrator recognizes the importance of giving. However, both theseRead More Essay on Appearance vs Reality in Everyday Use and The Gilded Six-Bits1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAppearance versus Reality in Alice Walkers and Zora Neale Hurstons Everyday Use and The Gilded Six-BitsÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã In The Gilded Six-Bits it appears that Otis D. Slemmons, the towns newest arrival, is rich, but by closer inspection by Joe Banks and Missie May, is found to be poor.Ã In Everyday Use, Maggie doesnt appear to be smart enough to honor and appreciate her heritage, but she and not Dee/Wangero is really preserving the family traditions as well as heritage.Ã Both The Gilded Six-BitsRead MoreSame Theme, Different Development in of Virginia Woolf and Alice WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Legacy and Everyday Use690 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAlice WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Legacy and Everyday Use, both of them have the common that is the theme of the story carries Ã¢â¬Å"the heritageÃ¢â¬ issue but the focus of it is different. In The Legacy, the focus of the heritage was a relic diary of Angela for her husband. Implicitly, we can conclude that the heritage was meant to be recognition of Angela to her husband. While the focus in Everyday Use, the focus of the heritage was the quilts, and in th e final story we could see the truth meaning of heritage it can
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Ironically enough, a twisted ankle would normally take seven weeks to heal. Yet Helen confidently insists that it was the product that healed her ankle and not her body natural healing process. There is no clear evidence that is provided and The Onion further mocks this fact by previously mentioning how pseudosciences guaranteed Mismanages effectiveness. This displays how an uninformed and stubborn consumer will believe in ridiculous claims so long as it cannot be proved false.Throughout the usage, words such as pseudosciences and Trigonometry are purposely used in order to exaggerate the testimonials of the product. Words such as comforts, reflexology, and semi-plausible reflect upon how easy it is for companies to manipulate consumers. It goes to show that some people are often fooled into belief from intelligent-sounding words that share a resemblance to modern scientific words. Furthermore, within this passage, a man named Geoff Dangles, advocates Mismanages since they are clearly endorsed by an intelligent-looking man in a white lab coat. We will write a custom essay sample on MagnaSoles: A Falsely Advertised Product or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page By using the phrase intelligent-looking man, the article pokes fun at consumers who willingly believe information they are told as long as it comes from people who look certified. Not only does the diction show this but the hyperbolic tone also reflects this message as well. The tone of the passage challenges the mind of the reader as it affects the emotion and thought processes of the audience. Many readers will feel confused and amused at how silly these ads are. But with claims such as how the healing power of crystals to re- template dead foot cells with vibration biofeedback. .. Process similar to that by which medicine makes people better it displays a strikingly similarity for ads that claim similar things. It is obvious that the claim is false as such a process is impossible and not supported. Through this and many other ridiculous sentiments the Onion does a wonderful job in convincing the reader of the dangers of falsely believing in peoples statements. Oftentimes people are inclined to submit to the authority of an advertiser and lack the drive to look into stated facts that lack clear evidence.This is a mistake on their part because most times, those people will be swindled of their money into buying worthless products. For example, a company that sells mystical healing pads, would claim that sticking them into certain places onto the body would make one healthier. This is how my father would fall for such a trick and pay 200$ to buy an unsupported product simply because he believed in the intelligent words that advertised it. One must never take things for granted because in society it is easy for deception to ruin a persons day.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Oil and Gas refers to the naturally occurring liquid and natural gas specifically made up of long chain hydrocarbons and various organic compounds found beneath the surface of the earth in entrapments called reservoirs; the presence of oil and gas in these reservoirs is the reason humans survive everyday and carry out their daily activities effectively. Different activities are usually carried out to ensure that the oil and gas present in the reservoirs continue to support humans through their day-to-day activities; such activities include exploration, development, production and finally, abandonment and reclamation. This process is what is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"the oil and gas processÃ¢â¬ . On completion of this process, numerous efforts are made to increase the quantity of oil that can be extracted again from the oil well and we refer to these efforts as Ã¢â¬Å"recoveryÃ¢â¬ . There are three main types of recovery, primary recovery (solution gas, gas cap and natural water drive) secondary recovery (gas injection and water flooding) and tertiary recovery (enhanced oil recovery EOR, polymer flooding and steam flooding). In this article, analysis on the Ã¢â¬Å"enhanced oil recoveryÃ¢â¬ technology and trends will be emphasized upon. Enhanced oil recovery becomes very vital when oil production has to be increased to obtain a recovery percentage of at least 75% (Rigzone, 2009). This can only achieved by using any of the four basic methods of EOR; these methods include chemical flooding, miscible gas displacement, thermal recovery and microbial EOR. Among these four mentioned, Ã¢â¬Å"Thermal methods are the oldest EOR methods, they have been developed over the last thirty yearsÃ¢â¬ (Elsevier, 1981). Miscible gas displacement also called Ã¢â¬Å"gas injectionÃ¢â¬ by some engineers refers to the process of injecting CO2, natural gas and Nitrogen into a reservoir; Ã¢â¬Å"in miscible gas displacement, the gas is injected at or above the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) which causes the gas to be miscible in oilÃ¢â¬ (Bandar, 2007). Chemical flooding also called Ã¢â¬Å"chemical injectionÃ¢â¬ involves injecting chemicals such as a polymer directly into the reservoir to enhance the oil recovery. Thermal recovery introduces heat to the reservoir to reduce the viscosity of the oil. Many times, steam is applied to the reservoir, thinning the oil and enhancing its ability to flow (Rigzone, 2009). Over 50% of the tertiary recovery method employed by the United States of America is the thermal recovery method. The most common gas employed when Ã¢â¬Å"gas injectionÃ¢â¬ is being used is the CO2 (carbon dioxide) gas. The two major reasons why carbon dioxide is used are because it is miscible with crude oil and also it is the cheapest of all the other miscible fluids present. Carbon dioxide injection into the reservoir based on previous experiences has shown that a recovery of up to 15% of the oil that was originally in the reservoir is achievable. With the injection of the carbon dioxide gas, changes occur in the reservoir such and temperature and pressure changes. Through the changes in temperature and pressure, carbon dioxide can form a solid, liquid, gas and supercritical fluid (Teledyne, 2007). Furthermore, when carbon dioxide has been injected into the reservoir, it begins to form a homogeneous mixture with the crude oil thus, the light hydrocarbons, which are present in the crude, mix with the carbon dioxide gas and this dissolves the oil. Upon miscibility of the carbon dioxide gas and the crude, the physical forces separating the liquid phase and the gaseous phase gives way and this helps the carbon dioxide gas move the oil from the rocks towards the wells for production. According to the USDOE, a very good example of an applied carbon dioxide gas injection technique is theÃ Wasson. Fields Denver Unit CO2 EOR project which has resultedÃ inÃ more than 120 million incremental barrelsÃ ofÃ oil through 2008 (2010). Moreover, carbon dioxide is not the only gas employed when the gas injection technique is employed. Nitrogen is another gas commonly used for gas injection basically to maintain the reservoir pressure; it can also be employed when gas cycling and gas lifting are to be employed. The minimum miscibility pressure of nitrogen depends largely on the pressure, temperate and the composition of the reservoir fluid. According to Schlumberger, Ã¢â¬Å"above the MMP, nitrogen injection is a miscible vaporizing drive. Miscibility of nitrogen can be achieved only with light oils that are at high pressures; therefore, the miscible method is suitable only in deep reservoirsÃ¢â¬ (2011). Both methods of miscible injection from past experiences have proved very effective. When oil has been effectively recovered from these reservoirs using the miscible gas, the gas that has mixed with the recovered oil is separated from the oil and re-injected into the reservoir to enhance the oil recovery once again. This process can be repeated until the reservoir is completely depleted and cannot produce any more oil. Note that nitrogen gas injection is used when dealing with reservoir containing light oils and also very economical allowing a recovery of up to 40%. A practical example of nitrogen gas injection is in the Cantarell oil field in Mexico. Upon application of this enhanced oil recovery methods, there was a noticeable increase in the oil production from 1. 9 million bpd to 2. 1 million bpd. Fig 1: Typical illustration of the miscible gas process using CO2 and water (University of Kansas, 1999) Chemical flooding can also be referred to as chemical injection and is the process whereby chemicals and polymers are injected into a reservoir to increase its Ã¢â¬Å"recovery factorÃ¢â¬ . EOR methods involving the use of polymers usually yield a recovery range of ~6% to ~30%. When these chemicals are injected into the reservoir, the oil that is trapped there is released thus it can flow freely into the production wells. Furthermore, Ã¢â¬Å"polymers help increase the effectiveness of water-floods and boost the efficiency of surfactantsÃ¢â¬ (Duncan, Ferguson, Sudip and Neptune, 2011). The use of polymers in chemical injection further helps to enhance the competence of the surfactants and also the efficiency of the water flooding; to be precise, water soluble polymers are best used for this process. The polymer that is regularly utilised during the process is the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide and with development in technology, the quality has improved over time. In order to achieve the best results from the chemical injection process, there are certain characteristics that need to be in place. These characteristics include Ã¢â¬Å"high remaining oil saturation, low water-flood residual saturation, high permeability and porosity, high polymer concentration and slug size, fresh water and soft water and reservoir temperatures of less than 220FÃ¢â¬ (Gary, 2007). Favourable characteristics are not limited to these that have just been mentioned but if these characteristics are present, then the expected recovery from the reservoir in question would be satisfactory as up to ~30% recovery is achievable. Moreover, economics have shown that chemical flooding is not profitable when the price of the surfactants is compared with that of the price of oil; it usually cost a lot to obtain the surfactants needed to recover oil from reservoirs and in some cases, the chemicals which are injected into the reservoir are more expensive than the oil which they extract from that reservoir. Chemical flooding can prove to be very pricy and at the same time provide the engineers with the needed results. Thermal recovery is usually applied to reservoirs with depths lesser than 3000ft. These reservoirs usually contain very viscous oil. There are four main types of thermal flooding that can be applied to any reservoir; they include: Fig 3: The steam injection process (The Piping Guide, 2009) 1. Cyclic stem injection: Popularly known as the Ã¢â¬Å"huff and puffÃ¢â¬ technique, it differs from all other types of thermal flooding in that it uses a central well to carry out every function from the injection of steam to the extraction of oil. The technique is quite straightforward, steam is pumped into the well and the well is covered up for some time so that the steam can get to the reservoir rocks and upon arrival, the steam enhances the oil flow. To improve the oil flow further, this process can be repeated over again which leads to a new process called Ã¢â¬Å"steam driveÃ¢â¬ . 2. Steam drive: In this process, steam is re-injected into the reservoir constantly. Moreover, this process cannot be as effective as required if the reservoir rocks have fractures. If there were fractures, Ã¢â¬Å"the steam would simply head straight through those into the producing wells instead of working its way through the reservoir rockÃ¢â¬ (Anon. , 2008). After the steam is injected, underlying heat is formed and this eventually aids the oil to flow with ease. 3. Thermally assisted gas-oil gravity drainage: this process is best suited for highly fractured reservoirs. In this process, the steam is injected directly into these fractures to reduce the viscosity of the oil and allow it flow easily. According to the petroleum development Oman, the steam Ã¢â¬Å"just needs to get the oil flowing more easily. This then allows gravity to take effect, causing the oil to drain down into the fractures and then into horizontal producing wells that are situated towards the bottom of the reservoirÃ¢â¬ (2008). 4. In-situ combustion: In this process, a reasonable quantity of the oil in the reservoir is actually set on fire to act as a steam and gas generator. According to the petroleum development Oman Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s the trickiest of the four main thermal EOR methods to get right. It is generally only used in a reservoir that has high permeability (i. e. fluids can flow easily through the reservoir rock) and even then only as a last resortÃ¢â¬ (2008). Some of the oil might be lost during burning but more can be recovered as a result of the steam that has been generated that drives the oil towards the producing well. MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (MEOR) Microbial enhanced oil recovery also known as microbial flooding refers to the process whereby microorganisms are injected into the reservoir to increase oil production from a well. The process of MEOR is a biological based technology in which these microorganisms react with the reservoir fluids in order to mobilize the oil and move it towards the production wells. Usually, MEOR is used in the third stage of EOR after 12% to 20% of the oil in the well has already been recovered. The characteristics of the reservoir in which the MEOR process is being applied will greatly have an effect on its success. There are two types of MEOR, Ã¢â¬Å"those in which the microorganisms react with reservoir fluids to generate surfactants and those that react with microorganisms to generate polymersÃ¢â¬ (Ronald, 2001). MEOR is an economical way of increasing oil production and as genetic technology keeps improving, it would become the most attractive and cheapest method of enhanced oil recovery as the improvement lowers the cost of oil production. Conclusively, certain strains of bacteria that exist and are used for the MEOR method sometimes do not survive due to the harsh conditions they encounter in the reservoirs but as mentioned earlier, microbiologists are working on a different strain of bacteria that can survive in the reservoirs irrespective of these harsh conditions. Enhanced oil recovery has an outstanding economic potential to increase oil recovery thereby maximizing profit. EOR also has it disadvantages that have negative effects on the ecosystem. Steam injection causes serious air pollution and also, polymer flooding which falls under chemical injection also leads to contamination of underground water which eventually makes it unfit for consumption. Furthermore, during the EOR process, a substance called Ã¢â¬Å"brineÃ¢â¬ is produced at the surface of the well; this substance is highly toxic and also radioactive. On exposure to humans, it can be very dangerous and highly detrimental. In my opinion, more research on how the chemical injection process can be carried out without affecting the underground water supply and also how the thermal process of steam injection can be done safely without a threat to the atmosphere. Regulations put in place to control the environmental impacts of EOR should be as strict as possible so that eventually, the eco-system is preserved and oil and gas companies can still maximize profit.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Executive Summary Business enterprises, both profit, and non-profit organisation have adopted outsourcing as a viable way of increasing effectiveness and efficiency. To assess the factors leading to outsourcing, this study delves into the outsourcing strategy used by the University of Wisconsin (UW), as well as the challenges they face in the implementation process.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Business Ousourcing Strategy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As such, this report is in a position of highlighting the reasons behind adopting alternative outsourcing, and this facilitates understanding of the costs and benefit of such a venture in relation to other institutions as well as the private entities. The findings were attained through a review of literature as well as through an ethnographic study in the school setting, which comprised of students, the staff, and members of legal authorities. This study is c onsistent with Hirschheim (2009: 19) findings, as it affirms that though the outsourcing companies tend to obtain the same benefits, not all can apply the same outsourcing strategy. This study highlighted how outsourcing in public entities is different from private entities, the benefits and challenges of outsourcing in public entities, as well as recommendation for improving the alternative outsourcing in higher learning institutions. This report brings to light the rationale behind outsourcing services as a business management practice. Introduction In the recent past, outsourcing services have been on the increase, with both profit and non-profit organisations considering it as an effective business managerial practice. The University of Wisconsin (UW) is one of the institutions that have adopted outsourcing services in an effort to increase efficiency in the provision of its services. The application of outsourcing, though, is compounded with many facets. Hence, this necessitate s a suitable framework for evaluating the extent to which the university is able to uphold outsourcing as a business managerial practice. As a result, the institution has already interviewed the chief business officers, the purchasing officer, as well as the physical plant directors.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More so, a number of interviews have already been conducted with the UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s office of procurement staff, the capital planning /budget staff, and the financial administration staff. However, a successful report on outsourcing for this institution necessitates a review of the literature on outsourcing in higher education institutions. Literature Review A vast majority of the higher education institutions has adopted diverse outsourcing strategies owing to tighter budgets and increased pressure on accountability (Hirschheim 2006: 269). These institutions have taken the approach of outsourcing a number of services, including the provision of food, bookstore operations, laundry services, and air conditioning, among others. A survey carried out in 1999 indicates that outsourcing in the food sector in higher education institutions has gone on for a number of decades, with only 5.3 percent of national colleges not undertaking the strategy (University Microfilms International. 2009). Indeed, a vast majority of the UW institutions had already adopted outsourcing services decades ago. Since then, there has been a significant increase in outsourcing services within the public sector, including higher education institutions (Chi, Jasper, Scott 1998: 23). However, even though outsourcing has been faced with limited resources since then, the move has facilitated meeting the needs of many institutions, according to Chi, Arnold, Perkins (2003). More so, the study of outsourcing continues to facilitate the success of outsourcing in higher educa tion institutions. Achieving this success, however, calls for an outsourcing strategy that is congruent with the business operations within a given institution. As such, the UW adopted the statutory and administrative framework in 1981(Chi, Jasper, Scott 1998: 27). This framework aimed at highlighting the advantages of using management controls rather than engaging in contract arrangements.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Business Ousourcing Strategy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More More so, the institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s legislature, through its commission, highlighted the rationale behind outsourcing through privatization strategies in 1995 (Chi, Arnold, Perkins 2003). This commission was tasked with the role of evaluating strategies of saving the taxpayers money through outsourcing services to the private sectors. Three strategies came into play while evaluating the strategies of saving taxpayers money: politics, cost, and strategy. The UW institutions are aware that while cost is one of the major factors that trigger a company to adopt outsourcing, the success of outsourcing is also faced with many controversies. The savings on cost emanates from the fact that if an institution adopts an outsourcing service that eliminates some of its indirect costs, such as some employees, infrastructure, and training requirements. Then the company is expected to save significantly on overhead costs. However, outsourcing can sometimes result to an increase in costs. This cost emanates from monitoring the service, contract generation, and transition costs, among others (Hunter 2006: 57). Additionally, the UW is aware that strategy elicits a company to adopt outsourcing due to the high rate of technology innovation. Therefore, it is necessary for the UW institutions to ensure that the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs are congruent with the current technology trend in order to meet their demand. In cases where the cur rent technology becomes obsolete, the UW institutions should use the appropriate outsourcing company for business transformation. In this case, the use of strategy involves increasing the level of accuracy through the development of modern technology systems such as the application of computer software. Lastly, the UW is cognizant of the political strategy of outsourcing within the institution. Thus, the outsourcing strategy of this institution does not take due consideration of the market demand or the need of achieving profit.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The grounds of setting up outsourcing strategy in a higher education institution highly depends on social factors rather than the economic factors, making the outcome to be based on the well-being of public (DiStefano, Rudestam, Silverman 2004:364 ). Therefore, the UW values the well-being of the members of the institution over cost and strategy. Additionally, the outsourcing strategy of UW institutions is influenced by public opinion, elected officials, as well as national/international trends. While the private entities engage in outsourcing services in a bid to reduce cost and adopt new technology, the public entities engage in outsourcing services to provide general welfare to the public(Khosrowpour 2003: 64). However, both companies tend to achieve the same benefits of outsourcing. Environment analysis (external and internal) One of the external factors that affect the outsourcing services is lack of suppliers in cases where the mission of one of the entity differs from the mi ssion of other entities. For case in point, outsourcing for higher education institution is faced with inadequate suppliers who have expertise on maintenance of schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ laboratory equipments such as microscopes and telescopes, hence limiting the chances of outsourcing such services. Additionally, pressure emanating from the political leaders is an external factor that affects outsourcing of the UW institutions (Amaral, Meek, Larsen 2003: 245). This stems from the fact that, unlike the private entities, the public institutions do not make decisions with the aim of making a profit or reducing the cost of business operations(Kretovics 2011: 125). Thus, their decisions on outsourcing are highly influenced by political leaders, national/international trends, as well as the current opinion of the public. Outsourcing is also influenced by internal factors such as the opinion of people who have a stand in the decision-making process. More so, managers of the institutions influence the outsourcing process even though they lack formal influence on the process. Thus, institutions face hidden influences emanating from such managers, and hence face a challenge while evaluating the degree to which they can adopt outsourcing services. The degree to which an institution should adopt outsourcing services is also influenced by legal factors such as suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ contract, agreements with the union, and initiatives of the minority, among others (McBurnie Ziguras 2007: 156). The presence of many legal requirements serves the role of reducing the chances of outsourcing services within a higher learning institution. Additionally, the outsourcing service for an institution is faced with a conflict of interest, with the supplier being forced to act in a manner that contravenes other interests (Derose 1999: 76). The presence of suppliers coming up with innovation can mislead the outsourcing company, making the company to buy product/services that are not viable. Because of this, the decision-making process of the outsourcing company is delayed since the decision-makers of the outsourcing organization are unaware of whether the supplier wants to make additional profit or whether the proposed innovation is viable. The other environmental factor experienced by outsourcing company is the competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior (Kumar 2006: 16). This is based on establishing whether the competitors have adopted the outsourcing services in a bid to evaluate whether it is a worthwhile goal. This shows that outsourcing companies, as well as the suppliers, are faced with high levels of uncertainty when it comes to evaluating its authenticity. As a result, the suppliers are forced to charge more due to the uncertainty of risks involved in the process. Analysis of existing outsourcing strategy The UW institutions outsourcing procedure are based on the statutory framework, which entirely depends on the results obtained from the Legislative Fiscal Bureau study that was ca rried out in 1981 (Redovich 2005: 94). More so, this bureau provides tips on how the institution can improve on the outsourcing sector. This study highlighted the management controls while carrying out business managerial practices rather than adopting contractual service agreements. The framework used provides the state agencies with an opportunity to purchases services for the UW institutions. In this case, the Bureau of Procurement is the purchasing agent for the state, and is tasked with this role providing services internally as well as outsourcing them, while the Department of Administration (DOA) is tasked with the role of evaluating the services that are economical within the institution from the ones that necessitate outsourcing (Redovich 2005: 95). Moreover, the Board of Regents Policy facilitates management of cost and provision of quality services in the UW institutions by encouraging cooperation between the institutions. However, the institutions have not yet come up wi th a standardized procedure that should be used as a criterion for evaluating the services that should be handled internally from the ones that necessitate outsourcing services. Purchase of library materials, including the IT department materials, is the responsibility of the institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s Administration Office of Procurement. The office, however, gives direction to auxiliary managers on decisions relative to outsourcing. This office is tasked with the role of evaluating outsourcing from the basis of cost analysis obtained from previous experiences of other companies. Additionally, the office is responsible for providing contract template in cases where a decision has already been made regarding outsourcing. Identification and critical evaluation of alternative outsourcing strategies There was a need of carrying out a study aimed at establishing the validity of the outsourcing procedure at the UW institution. This study meticulously analysed the outsourcing strategies through a framework that contains 5 stages: the rationale for outsourcing, the unique factors relative to outsourcing in higher education institutions, the factors contributing to successful outsourcing, the trends of outsourcing in the higher education institutions, and the future/growth of outsourcing in the UW institutions (Siegel 2010: 53). Method The method used in the critical evaluation of alternative outsourcing strategies stemmed the following sources: An analysis of literature review based on alternative outsourcing in a bid to come up with relevant questions. An intense consultation with all the staff responsible for outsourcing services within the school through the focus groups. A quantitative and qualitative survey of a sample size consisted of all people who have a declaration on outsourcing services. A case study analysis aimed at establishing alternative outsourcing strategies in an effort to highlight the lessons learned through outsourcing services. Key Findings The li terature on alternative outsourcing in the higher learning institutions portrayed that a vast majority of these institutions uphold alternative outsourcing because it served as a cost reduction strategy, it facilitated upgrading and adopting to new technologies, and it assured financial results (DiStefano, Rudestam, Silverman 2004: 364). For case in point, after weighing the advantages and disadvantages of alternative outsourcing, the George Mason University adopted outsourcing services in the dormitories, parking, bookstore, as well as mail delivery sector. The City Colleges of Chicago outsourced financial operations such as purchases of products and payroll in order to eradicate inability to concentrate on the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s mission. The University of Miami adopted outsourcing services for acquisition of maintenance materials as well as stocking its medical center. The University of Texas carried out a cost-benefit analysis and acknowledged alternative outsourcing services in th e area of accommodation facilities (Francis 2006: 141-148). However, it was imperative to note that the alternative outsourcing does not always lead to a positive result. By reviewing the literature, it was apparent that the Pennsylvania University was faced with unsuccessful maintenance service due to a number of limitations experienced by the supplier. Additionally, we were able to verify that the Radford University experienced unsuccessful results from the supplier after the supply closed the business (DiStefano, Rudestam, Silverman 2004: 365-373). Hence, we noted quite a number of outsourcing inadequacies emanating from the suppliers, such as poor communication, poor defined performance criteria, poor monitoring of the outsourcing services contract. However, reviewing of literature in all these institutions was paramount because it facilitated evaluation of alternative outsourcing strategies through benchmarking the UW institutions with the other institutions carrying out outso urcing as a business management practice. Through holding intense consultation with all the staff responsible for outsourcing services within the school, we were able to confirm that the alternative outsourcing for higher learning institutions are characterised by unique factors that, in turn, affect business decisions (Hirschheim 2009: 19). Some of these factors include the following: The schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s mission/vision statement; The hours of services, especially for the laboratory and libraries, which call for regular janitorial services from the supplier; and The academic calendar resulting in low and high season, thus affecting affective sustainability of the supplier; and The decision-making process, which calls for consultation between the staff and the students Through the quantitative and the qualitative survey, we were able to identify quite a number of statutory requirements that play the role of complicating alternative outsourcing. These factors helped us evaluate alte rnative outsourcing strategies. Some of them include the following: The length of the contract, as a contract in the UW, is renewed once in 5-7 years; The employee bargaining agreement that creates a conflict between employees and the suppliers; and Funding restrictions owing to the fact that the UW institutions do not receive additional funds even in cases of inflation Choice of solution (s) and justification of the course of action that the organisation should follow Owing to the advantages associated with outsourcing in the UW, it is imperative for the UW institution to identify and follow strategies that help to achieve a smooth running of the operations. Therefore, the institution should develop an outsourcing framework that takes into account the ability to have an open discussion with the supplier on a regular basis, provides an opportunity for joint procure agreements between the outsourcing company and the supplier, and creates an avenue for collaborative agreements with other institutions on the criteria of outsourcing their services (Dominguez 2006: 45). In doing so, the outsourcing services in the institution will have an opportunity of expanding its operation with the outsourcing company at a reduced cost that takes into account the welfare of the public. Conclusion Outsourcing in UW institutions reflects a vital business management operation that is faced with logistical challenges. However, its functions cannot be overlooked since it has managed to resolve a number of business dilemmas such as tight budgets, accountability in the academic sector, and the escalating student demand. Hence, it is accredited for the high reductions in cost, adaptation to innovation, and public satisfaction within the higher learning institutions. Because of this, many institutions have taken the approach of adopting alternative outsourcing in various sectors within the higher learning institutions. The UW institutions provide us with the knowledge that they have b een outsourcing their services for a number of decades and that these institutions are relentlessly evaluating the services that necessitate effective alternative outsourcing. As such, the administration holds backs sensitive services such as budget allocation and staff constraint. Additionally, the institutions provide us with knowledge that there are differences on the choice of services outsourced by the UW institutions, stating that this depends highly on the size of the institution, as well as the location of the institution, among other factors. However, centralization of the alternative outsourcing can only be achieved through collaborative efforts between the institutions, as well as between the federal laws and the UW institutions. List Of References Amaral, A., Meek, V. L., Larsen, I. M. 2003. The higher education managerial revolution?. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Chi, K.S., Arnold, K.A., Perkins, H.M. 2003. Privatization in State Government:Ã Trends and Is sues. Web. Chi, K. S., Jasper, C., Scott, M. J.1998. Private practices: A review of privatization in state government: full report. Lexington, KY, Council of State Governments. Derose, G. J. 1999. Outsourcing: Training education. Alexandria, VA, American Society for Training Development. DiStefano, A., Rudestam, K. E., Silverman, R. J. 2004. Encyclopedia of distributed learning. Thousand Oaks, Calif, Sage Publications. Dominguez, L. R. 2006. The managerÃ¢â¬â¢s step-by-step guide to outsourcing. New York, McGraw-Hill. Francis, P. H. 2006. Reconstructing alma mater: The coming crisis in higher education, a blueprint for reform. New York, Algora Pub. Hirschheim, R. 2009. Information Systems Outsourcing: Enduring Themes, Global Challenges, and Process Opportunities. Berlin, Springer. Hirschheim, R., Heinzl, A., Dibbern, J. 2006. Information systems outsourcing: Enduring themes, new perspectives, and global challenges. Berlin, Springer. Hunter, I. 2006. HR business partners. Alder shot, Hants, Gower publishers. Khosrowpour, M. 2003. Information technology and organizations: trends, issues, challenges and solutions, Volume 1. Nevada, Idea Group Inc. Kretovics, M. 2011. Business practices in higher education: A guide for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s administrators. New York, Routledge. Kumar, G. S. 2006. Outsourcing laboratory based services: Inventing a new future for RD and testing. New Delhi, Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co. McBurnie, G., Ziguras, C. 2007. Transnational education: Issues and trends in offshore higher education. London, Routledge. McBurnie, G., Ziguras, C. 2007. Transnational education: Issues and trends in offshore higher education. London, Routledge. Redovich, D. W. 2005. The big con in education: Why must Ã¢â¬Å"allÃ¢â¬ high school graduates be prepared for college?. New York: iUniverse. Siegel, D. J. 2010. Organizing for social partnership: Higher education in cross-sector collaboration. New York, NY, Routledge. University Microfilms International. 2009. Dissertation abstracts international. A, The humanities and social sciences. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms International. This essay on Business Ousourcing Strategy was written and submitted by user Sonia Whitney to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
A citizen, rights and responsibilities and antisocial behaviour Introduction A citizen, rights and responsibilities and antisocial behaviour IntroductionAnti Social BehavioursTackling Anti Social Behaviour in HousingConclusionReferencesRelated Introduction The term Ã¢â¬ËcitizenÃ¢â¬â¢ may literally be used to refer to any person who has acquired or has the status of citizenship. The acquired status is used when the person that is conferred with the citizenship is not originally a citizen of the sovereign nation while, in effect the citizenship has to be earned through set of rules that govern the society.Ã According to Hardy (1997) Ã¢â¬Å"the status of citizen is used to denote the link between an individual and a State, a form of political organization with territorial boundaries which may encompass more than one nationÃ¢â¬ .Ã Citizenship is defined by Lewis (2004, p 9) as Ã¢â¬Å"a legal status conferred by an internationally recognised nation Ã¢â¬â state. This status accords a nationality and the right to make claims against the state and receive a share of the public goodsÃ¢â¬ .Ã Therefore, it can be seen that when an individual has the status of a citizenship, such individual has formed a relationship with the St ate and this relationship is guided and strengthened by the citizen knowing his/her rights from the State and responsibilities to the State, community and entire neighbourhood. This project focuses on the rights and responsibilities of a citizen with respect to tenancy and how these relate to existing government policies on anti social behaviour.Ã The project will attempt to achieve this focus by fully describing the rights of a citizen from the State and the responsibilities of that citizen to the State, community and entire neighbourhood.Ã Secondly the project will carry out a review of the current government policies on anti social behaviour and how these policies relate to the rights and responsibilities of a citizen.Ã Thirdly, the project will conclude with summary of the overall work. Rights of a citizen When a person has the status of a citizenship, Blackburn (1994) argues that a relationship has been formed with the state which gives the citizen certain rights.Ã However, Marshal (1992, cited in Lewis, 2004) viewed citizenship as a relationship between the individual and a state which gives rise to 3 basic elements of rights Ã¢â¬â civil, political and social. Civil rights The civil right of a citizen represents the right to freedom of speech, expression, thought and faith and to conclude valid contracts. When a person becomes a citizen, such person has by virtue of the citizenship status acquired the right to freely express him/herself and to put forward opinions about issues affecting the that nation.Ã In addition, the citizenship status comes with the right to equal opportunities and social justice in that society. Political rights The political right of a citizen is the rights that allow the person to vote.Ã The right to vote is an opportunity to demonstrate oneÃ¢â¬â¢s democratic rights and this is important in a democratic society.Ã The political right also includes the chance to participate in political process such as contesting for electoral positions and being duly elected in the political office. Social rights The social element of the right of a citizen is the right to economic welfare and to fully share the social heritages within the society.Ã One of the social heritages in a society is housing.Ã Blackburn (1994) viewed the right to housing and be housed as one of the idealistic rights of a citizen. Within the context of this project, the housing right (social right) of a citizen will be the subject for main focus. Housing right The citizen has the right to housing (Cowan and Marsh, 2001 and Blackburn, 1994). There are two main sectors in the housing market for a citizen Ã¢â¬â the owner occupied and the rented sector.Ã The owner occupied housing sector includes the individuals that have undertaken to purchase a property through mortgage and who live in the house by themselves.Ã The house that is purchased may be a leasehold or freehold, but, in either case, the government usually supports the citizens through varying the interest rates and stamp duties.Ã Other form of support by the government is through consultation with the mortgage lenders in reducing the amount of deposit required for the citizens to purchase their own owner occupied houses. These supports are to enable the citizen enforce their rights of housing.Ã The rented housing sector includes the private and public.Ã Private rented sector refers to those that rent out their house through short hold tenancies while the public sect or is the assured short hold tenancy.Ã The providers of housing to citizens in the public sector include housing associations and local authorities.Ã The local authorities invest in houses and allocate them to citizens on the basis of Ã¢â¬Ëfirst come first servedÃ¢â¬â¢ but attention is given to those with extra-ordinary circumstance or great urgency.Ã The housing associations are not for profit making organisations who provide house to citizens based on their criteria and in view of the nature of the associations, they do not share profits but re-invest them into the activities of the housing. Responsibilities of a citizen The basic right of housing for a citizen is further broken down in the tenancy agreement the citizen enters into with the landlord which states the conditions of the tenancy.Ã The Housing Act 1988 with amendments up to 2004 and the Landlord and Tenant Act 1985 protect the citizen from undue harassment, unfair charges and fraudulent practices and also ensure that the property is in good condition for occupancy and illegal evictions.Ã However, in order to fully enjoy the right to housing and the protection as contained in the Tenancy Agreement and the relevant Housing Acts, the citizen is required to fulfill some basic obligations.Ã The citizen has the obligation to act within the law by not engaging in criminal or immoral activities and also to behave in such manners that may not be regarded are against socially accepted corms within the neighbourhood or wider social environment.Ã Therefore, it can be said that one of the rights of a citizen is the right to housing and als o that one of the major responsibilities of the citizen is to carry on his/her daily activities of living in such a manner as to show behaviours that are against the neighbourhood in which he/she resides.Ã The term neighbourhood is described by Power (2007, p 17) as Ã¢â¬Å"local areas within towns and cities recognized by people who live there as distinct places, with their own character and approximate boundariesÃ¢â¬ .Ã The citizen is a member of the neighbourhood and his or her actions will impact all the members of the neighbourhood either directly or indirectly, in effect, the citizen is expected to maintain a pattern of behaviour for the interest of the general neighbourhood.Ã A pattern of behaviour that is not in line with the acceptable behaviours within a neighbourhood is known as anti social behaviour.Ã According to Rose (1996) citizens are considered to be responsible when they play their roles but in a situation that the moral lifestyle of such person is con trary, such person is considered a threat or reproach to the community.Ã According to Cowan and Marsh (2001, p 168) Ã¢â¬Å"the role of the law relevant here is through seeking to uphold particular standards of behaviourÃ¢â¬ .Ã In the UK, the law that seeks to uphold the standards of behaviours within the neighbourhood is the anti social behaviour contained in the Crime and Disorder Act (1996, 1998) and Ant Social Behaviour Act (2003). Anti Social Behaviours The Good Practice Unite of the Chartered Institute of Housing (CIH 1995, p3) defined antisocial behaviour as Ã¢â¬Å"behaviour that opposes societyÃ¢â¬â¢s norms and accepted standards of behaviourÃ¢â¬ .Ã Also the Crime and Disorder Act (1998) described antisocial behaviour as acting Ã¢â¬Å"in a manner that caused or was likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to one or more persons not of the same householdÃ¢â¬ .Ã The Anti Social Behaviour Act (2003) identified various forms of behaviours found to be common and these include: noise nuisance; intimidation and/or harassments, littering and graffiti; being violent against neighbours and properties; hate behviours that target an ethnic or gender groups; and use of the property for unlawful business or other purposes. Causes Several reasons have been given by different researchers and organisations as to the reasons that lead to anti social behaviours.Ã Notable among the researchers are Hawkins, Catalano and Miller (1992) who identified risk factors and protective factors.Ã Ã The risk factors involves certain issues of life that have the potential of making people act against the society such as poverty, family problems and problems that arise in the school.Ã The protective factors refer to the presence of some features that may discourage the individual from acting against the society such as bonding and community involvement.Ã The issues of risk and protective factors were further highlighted by the argument of Miller (2005) that neighbourhoods with high crime rate in most cases are traceable to poverty, deprivation and lack of involvement in the community in which the offender resides. Impacts Anti social behaviours has the likelihood of impacting on the members of the neighbourhood, properties and the individual that carries out the behaviour.Ã One of the impacts of antisocial behaviour on the neighbourhood is that it can make withdraw from public places within the area for fear of the safety of their lives thereby and also crumble the service provisions in that area (Rogers and Coaffee, 2005).Ã The Policy Action Team of the Social Exclusion Unit (SEU, 1998, p11) argued that Ã¢â¬Å"if housing is poorly managed or unlettable, or crime and anti social behaviour are not tackled, community support systems can easily crumbleÃ¢â¬ .Ã Secondly, there is the possibility of reducing house prices in the area and increased cost of repairs and cleaning of graffiti as a result of vandalism (Brand and Price, 2000). Also, an area that is notorious for behaviours seen to be contrary to the accepted standards in the society may have a stigma which may make residents decide to relocate or prevent new ones moving in.Ã This problem of stigma was emphasised by Harworth and Manzi (1999, p 163) that there is Ã¢â¬Å"the stigma attached to public rented housesÃ¢â¬ and that this is the result of behaviours that are usually not in conformity with the accepted norms in the wider society.Ã In order to tackle the problem of anti social behaviour and reduce or eliminate its impacts on the neighbourhood and properties, Cowan and Marsh (2001) suggested the use of basic strategies such as housing management, legal tools and partnering with Social Exclusion Unit. Tackling Anti Social Behaviour in Housing Housing Management Cowan and Marsh (2001) suggested that in order to control the activities of those that perpetrate anti social behaviours, Landlords should control the access to houses by such individuals through the use of housing register.Ã This suggestion implies that those noted for their anti social behaviours should be excluded from having access to houses as a deterrent to others that would want to follow their bad examples.Ã The power for landlords to exclude those whose behaviours are deemed to be against the norms of the society in which they reside (anti social behaviour) is contained in the Part VI of the Housing Act (1996) and research by Smith (2001) found that this exclusion has reduced the rate of antisocial behaviours in most estates. In addition to the use of exclusion as a house management tool for deterrent and preventive measure for dealing with anti social behaviours, Landlords were empowered by the Housing Acts 1996 to adjust the tenancy agreement indicate repossession of properties.Ã In effect, the tenancy agreement fully describes the rights and responsibilities of both parties with particular respect to anti social behaviours and that the Landlord has the right of repossession if the tenant receives anti social behavioural order Ã¢â¬â an order for carrying out anti social behaviours.Ã On the effectiveness of the use of repossession as a deterrent, the Social Exclusion Unit (SEU, 2000, p 4) argued that Ã¢â¬Å"evicting anti social people does not mea that the problem will go away.Ã Some people will be deterred from future ant social behaviour by the experience of eviction or exclusion from the housing registerÃ¢â¬ . Legal Tools The 1996 Housing Act further gave powers to Landlords (both Local Authorizes and Social Registered Landlords) to deal with their own tenants with respect to anti social behaviours.Ã This Act made individuals responsible for their own actions, those of their households and those of their visitors and empowered landlords to take possession of their properties in the event of anti social behaviour.Ã In applying this power, certain behaviours were banned by Landlords and where the tenant goes against those behaviours, a housing injunction is obtained from the court to arrest the offender.Ã Also the 1998 Housing Act introduced the use of Anti Social Behavioural Order (ASBO) by the police or landlords against offenders as long as they are above the age of 10.Ã Other legal tools include the use of 1996 Noise Act and 1990 Environmental Protection for noisy tenants and those houses not maintained by the tenants. Social Exclusion Unit Partnership While applying both the managerial and legal tools, Cowan and Marsh (2001) further suggested the use of partnership initiatives with the social exclusion unit by landlords and local authorities.Ã The Social Exclusion Unit works with communities, individuals and families to make sure that anti social behaviours are not breached and that to a greater extent avoid repeat or re Ã¢â¬â offending (SEU, 2000c).Ã Rather than punish those whose behaviours are anti social, through exclusion, repossession or injunction, the social exclusion unit partners with other relevant agencies to produce strategies in the forms of projects that to support the circumstances of the offender.Ã This process involves having a one to one meeting with the offender to identify the causes of the anti social behaviour and the outcome of the discussion forms the basis for suggesting possible support programs to assist the offender where appropriate.Ã The partnership with the social exclusion unit has a dditional advantage of making sure that those who are reacting as a result of their extra ordinary circumstances beyond their control are supported in overcoming such circumstances. Conclusion This project sought to find out about a citizen and how the rights and responsibilities of Ã¢â¬Ëa citizenÃ¢â¬â¢ relate with the current government policies on anti social behaviours.Ã During the course of the project, it was found that citizen describes a person who has the status or acquired the status of citizenship that is, having a form of relationship with the State.Ã Such relationships with the nation that has accorded that person the citizenship status usually comes with political, civil and social rights.Ã The social right of the citizen which formed the basic focus of this project includes the right to housing and being housed.Ã The right of the citizen to be provided with housing protects the citizen from being harassed, unfairly charged or exploited by landlords.Ã However, the right of the citizen to housing requires that the citizen keeps to the conditions of the tenancy agreement among which includes a condition not to act in a manner that will above o ther things constitute not conform to the norms of the society/neighbourhood Ã¢â¬â that is ant social. Furthermore, the project found that where the citizen acts anti social, it may result in crumbling of the service provisions within the neighbourhood (SEU, 1998), reducing house prices as the result of the stigma of crime and violence (Harworth and Manzi, 1999) and increasing cost of repairs and maintenance by the local authorities in cleaning graffiti.Ã In order to tackle the problem of antisocial behaviour, the project found 3 basic strategies as suggested by Cowan and Marsh (2001) and these include housing management, legal tools and partnership with the social exclusion unit.Ã Housing management uses seeks to exclude citizens with anti social behaviours from having access to housing and also repossessing their properties while the legal tool uses injunction.Ã The partnership with the social exclusion unit aims to address the circumstances that create the anti social behaviours of a citizen. Based on the findings during the course of this project, it can be seen that a citizen has a right to housing and that this right comes with responsibilities not to act anti social.Ã Therefore, the current government policy of anti social behaviour seeks to ensure that a citizen, enjoying the right to housing, complies with the responsibilities that come with the right to the housing being enjoyed.Ã The rights are received by the citizen; the responsibilities are the conditions for the rights and the anti social behavior policies ensure that the conditions are kept by the citizen. References Blackburn, R. (1994).Ã Rights of Citizenship.Ã London.Ã Mansell Publishing Ltd Catalano, R.F., Hawkins, J.D. (1996). The Social Development Model: A theory of antisocial behavior. In J.D. Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and Crime: Current Theories (pp. 149-197) New York: Cambridge CIH (1995).Ã Housing management standards manual. Coventry. CIH Cowan, D. and Marsh, A. (2001). Two steps forward:Ã Housing policy into the new millennium. UK.Ã Polity Press Hardy, H. (1997) Ã¢â¬ËCitizenship and the Right to VoteÃ¢â¬â¢, 17 Oxford J Legal Stud 76 (1997). Hawkins J.D., Catalano R. F., Miller J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64-105. Lewis, G. (2004).Ã Citizenship Lives Social Policy.Ã UK.Ã The polity Press Millie, A., Jacobson, J., Hough, M. and Paraskevopoulou, A. (2005a) Anti-social behaviour in London Setting the context for the London Anti-Social Behaviour Strategy, London: GLA Power, Anne (2007a) City Survivors. Bringing up children in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Bristol: The Policy Press. Rogers, P. and Coaffee, J. (2005) Ã¢â¬ËMoral panics and urban renaissance: Policy, tactics and youth in public spaceÃ¢â¬â¢, City, 9(3) 321-340. Rose, N. (1996).Ã The death of the social?Ã Refiguring the territory of government, Economy and Society, vol 25, no 3, pp 282-99. Social Exclusion Unit (1998).Ã Bringing Britain together: A national strategy for neighbourhood renewal, Cm 4045, London:Ã The stationery Office. Social Exclusion Unit (2000a) Leaflet, London: Cabinet Office Smith, R., Stirling, T. Papps, P., Evans, A. and Rowlands, R. (2001).Ã Allocation and Exclusion:Ã The impact of new approach to allocating social housing, London: Shelter. The 1998 Crime and Disorder Act The 1996 Housing Act
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Animal Liberation Front (ALF) - USA - Essay Example According to media and other researchers, the group could not stand against criminal like activities that were being conducted in the name of animal liberation under the flag or ALF or any other name. During 2002 the department that is responsible for monitoring and controlling extremist like activities reported that ALF has used violent terrorist like activities for their operations and have cost billions by destroying property but have ensured that no human being is harmed 2. 1. Don Liddick,. Eco-terrorism: radical environmental and animal liberation movements. Westport, (Conn.: Praeger, 2006) 127. 2. Yonah Alexander and Michael Kraft (eds.). Evolution of U.S. counterterrorism policy. Westport, (Conn.: Praeger Security International, 2008) 241 - 250. During the period of 2005, homeland security department of US compiled a list of groups that may be a serious terrorist threat to US and within that list, ALF was even considered as a plausible terrorist threat and the US decided to us e its resources against their activities 2. The history of this group can be dated back to the end of 1963 when John Prestige, a British news reporter, gained the duty of viewing an event where hunters had to hunt a deer who was pregnant 3. He stood against this activity and formed HAS (Hunt Saboteurs Association); the aim of this association was to make sure that huntsmen fail in their act of hunting 3. Later, one of the group members named Ronnie Lee made his own group to help animals, this group comprised of young individuals who were against the act of animal brutality, and the group was recognized as the Band of Mercy 4. ALF came into existence and made its appearance when the founder of HAS was taken into defense officials custody for conducting a raid on the Oxford Laboratory Animal Colonies. People revolted against their arrest and later the founder was assigned imprisonment for three years from where he continued to pursue animal liberation by going on a hunger strike and d emanding for vegetarian food in jails 5. Later he was released on parole basis for 12 months; as soon as he gained freedom, he started his activities and to make the group look fiercer to others, he changed the name of the group from Band of Mercy to Animal Liberation Front 6. 3. Norm Phelps. The longest struggle: animal advocacy from Pythagoras to PETA. (New York: Lantern Books, 2007) 201 4. Margaret Pasewicz,. Cultural encyclopedia of vegetarianism. Santa Barbara, (CA: Greenwood, 2010) 27 5. Harvey Kushner, W. Encyclopedia of terrorism. Thousand Oaks,( Calif.: Sage Publications, 2003)10 6. Gus Martin,. The Sage encyclopedia of terrorism. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, (Calif.: SAGE Publications, 2011) 45 The group was not only active behind the walls, they even conducted their activities outside the wall, the group had no leader and group members had to follow the stated guidelines of the movement at all times. According to the movements guidelines, to increase economic cost of those who make revenues by manipulating animals, to provide freedom to animals from places where they were treated very badly, to publicize the harsh treatment animals had to go through, to ensure that no animal was being harmed and those individuals who were living in accordance to the constitution created by the movement were entitled as members of ALF even if they had not